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Worth A Thousand Words

When Victims Become Killers PDF Author: Mahmood Mamdani
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691192340
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 390

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Book Description
An incisive look at the causes and consequences of the Rwandan genocide "When we captured Kigali, we thought we would face criminals in the state; instead, we faced a criminal population." So a political commissar in the Rwanda Patriotic Front reflected after the 1994 massacre of as many as one million Tutsis in Rwanda. Underlying his statement was the realization that, though ordered by a minority of state functionaries, the slaughter was performed by hundreds of thousands of ordinary citizens, including judges, doctors, priests, and friends. Rejecting easy explanations of the Rwandan genocide as a mysterious evil force that was bizarrely unleashed, When Victims Become Killers situates the tragedy in its proper context. Mahmood Mamdani coaxes to the surface the historical, geographical, and political forces that made it possible for so many Hutus to turn so brutally on their neighbors. In so doing, Mamdani usefully broadens understandings of citizenship and political identity in postcolonial Africa and provides a direction for preventing similar future tragedies.

When Victims Become Killers

When Victims Become Killers PDF Author: Mahmood Mamdani
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691192340
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 390

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Book Description
An incisive look at the causes and consequences of the Rwandan genocide "When we captured Kigali, we thought we would face criminals in the state; instead, we faced a criminal population." So a political commissar in the Rwanda Patriotic Front reflected after the 1994 massacre of as many as one million Tutsis in Rwanda. Underlying his statement was the realization that, though ordered by a minority of state functionaries, the slaughter was performed by hundreds of thousands of ordinary citizens, including judges, doctors, priests, and friends. Rejecting easy explanations of the Rwandan genocide as a mysterious evil force that was bizarrely unleashed, When Victims Become Killers situates the tragedy in its proper context. Mahmood Mamdani coaxes to the surface the historical, geographical, and political forces that made it possible for so many Hutus to turn so brutally on their neighbors. In so doing, Mamdani usefully broadens understandings of citizenship and political identity in postcolonial Africa and provides a direction for preventing similar future tragedies.

When Victims Become Killers

When Victims Become Killers PDF Author: Mahmood Mamdani
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691193835
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 392

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Book Description
An incisive look at the causes and consequences of the Rwandan genocide "When we captured Kigali, we thought we would face criminals in the state; instead, we faced a criminal population." So a political commissar in the Rwanda Patriotic Front reflected after the 1994 massacre of as many as one million Tutsis in Rwanda. Underlying his statement was the realization that, though ordered by a minority of state functionaries, the slaughter was performed by hundreds of thousands of ordinary citizens, including judges, doctors, priests, and friends. Rejecting easy explanations of the Rwandan genocide as a mysterious evil force that was bizarrely unleashed, When Victims Become Killers situates the tragedy in its proper context. Mahmood Mamdani coaxes to the surface the historical, geographical, and political forces that made it possible for so many Hutus to turn so brutally on their neighbors. In so doing, Mamdani usefully broadens understandings of citizenship and political identity in postcolonial Africa and provides a direction for preventing similar future tragedies.

Who Must Die in Rwanda's Genocide?

Who Must Die in Rwanda's Genocide? PDF Author: Kyrsten Sinema
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 1498518656
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 177

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Book Description
This book provides a juridical, sociopolitical history of the evolution of the 1994 Rwandan genocide. Over one million citizens were massacred in less than 100 days via a highly organized, efficiently executed genocide throughout the tiny country of Rwanda. While genocide is not a unique phenomenon in modern times, a genocide like Rwanda’s is unique. Unlike most genocides, wherein a government plans and executes mass murder of a targeted portion of its population, asking merely that the majority population look the other way, or at most, provide no harbor to the targeted population (ex: Germany), the Rwandan government relied heavily on the civilian population to not only politically support, but actively engage in the acts of genocide committed over the 100 days throughout the spring of 1994. This book seeks to understand why and how the Rwandan genocide occurred. It analyzes the colonial roots of modern Rwandan government and the development of the political “state of exception” created in Rwanda that ultimately allowed the sovereign to dehumanize the minority Tutsi population and execute the most efficient genocide in modern history.

African Justice for African Healing

African Justice for African Healing PDF Author: Kathrin Kästle
Publisher: Tectum Wissenschaftsverlag
ISBN: 3828852149
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 143

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Book Description
To cope with the legacy of the swiftest genocide in human history the largest government-driven reconciliation process worldwide has been taking place in Rwanda over the past years. Dealing with the consequences of violent conflict is an exceptionally difficult task as never before were so many ordinary citizens involved in the killing. Moreover, victims and perpetrators are forced to coexist in the same state and thus need to find a way to come to terms with the past. Drawing on Rwanda's contested history and the collective myths and chosen trauma that shape the perception of Hutu and Tutsi today this book analyzes the potential for reconciliation through transitional justice 15 years after the genocide. It describes the contributions of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), the national court system and the traditional Gacaca courts to national reconciliation. The authoritarian political climate and the Tutsification of power in contemporary Rwanda serve as the background against which the benefits and weaknesses of the different justice mechanisms are critically examined. The analysis is especially valuable for anyone interested in the specific potential of so-called traditional African justice mechanisms in reconciling societies after violent conflict, and indeed anyone who is interested in the political process of justice and reconciliation.

Citizen and Subject

Citizen and Subject PDF Author: Meike de Goede
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351352083
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 104

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Book Description
Mahmood Mamdani’s 1996 Citizen and Subject is a powerful work of analysis that lays bare the sources of the problems that plagued, and often still plague, African governments. Analysis is one of the broadest and most fundamental critical thinking skills, and involves understanding the structure and features of arguments. Mamdani’s strong analytical skills form the basis of an original investigation of the problems faced by the independent African governments in the wake of the collapse of the colonial regimes imposed by European powers such has Great Britain and France. It had long been clear that these newly-independent governments faced many problems – corruption, the imposition of anti-democratic rule, and many basic failures of day-to-day governance. They also tended to replicate many of the racially and ethnically prejudiced structures that were part of colonial rule. Mamdani analyses the many arguments about the sources of these problems, drawing out their hidden implications and assumptions in order to clear the way for his own creative new vision of the way to overcome the obstacles to democratization in Africa. A dense and brilliant analysis of the true nature of colonialism’s legacy in Africa, Mamdani’s book remains influential to this day.

Rwanda's Gamble

Rwanda's Gamble PDF Author: Peter E. Harrell
Publisher: iUniverse
ISBN: 0595270522
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 142

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Book Description
Gacaca is an innovative form of justice that the Rwandan government will use to try the more than 100,000 participants in the 1994 genocide. Instead of putting suspects before the statutory-law courts that existed prior to 1994, the government is establishing 11,000 popularly-elected tribunals and charging them with the task of investigating and trying crimes that occurred within their territorial jurisdiction. Officials hope that this will help clear the backlog of cases while giving suspects (most of whom have spent nearly a decade in prison without a trial) a chance finally to have their cases heard. This book provides a detailed explanation of how the system will work, from the selection and training of the judges to the basics of courtroom procedure. It also places gacaca in the context of rapidly emerging restorative theories of justice, and argues for gacaca's appropriateness in the Rwandan context. Based on interviews, training manuals, documents never-before-published in the United States, and extensive travels throughout Rwanda, this book is an invaluable introductory guide to gacaca and explains why similar forms of justice should be experimented with elsewhere.

On the Path to Genocide

On the Path to Genocide PDF Author: Deborah Mayersen
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 1782382852
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 260

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Book Description
Why did the Armenian genocide erupt in Turkey in 1915, only seven years after the Armenian minority achieved civil equality for the first time in the history of the Ottoman Empire? How can we explain the Rwandan genocide occurring in 1994, after decades of relative peace and even cooperation between the Hutu majority and the Tutsi minority? Addressing the question of how the risk of genocide develops over time, On the Path to Genocide contributes to a better understand why genocide occurs when it does. It provides a comprehensive and comparative historical analysis of the factors that led to the 1915 Armenian genocide and the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, using fresh sources and perspectives that yield new insights into the history of the Armenian and Rwandan peoples. Finally, it also presents new research into constraints that inhibit genocide, and how they can be utilized to attempt the prevention of genocide in the future.

Genocides by the Oppressed

Genocides by the Oppressed PDF Author: Nicholas A. Robins
Publisher: Indiana University Press
ISBN: 0253220777
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 225

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Book Description
In the last two decades, the field of comparative genocide studies has produced an increasingly rich literature on the targeting of various groups for extermination and other atrocities, throughout history and around the contemporary world. However, the phenomenon of "genocides by the oppressed," that is, retributive genocidal actions carried out by subaltern actors, has received almost no attention. The prominence in such genocides of non-state actors, combined with the perceived moral ambiguities of retributive genocide that arise in analyzing genocidal acts "from below," have so far eluded serious investigation. Genocides by the Oppressed addresses this oversight, opening the subject of subaltern genocide for exploration by scholars of genocide, ethnic conflict, and human rights. Focusing on case studies of such genocide, the contributors explore its sociological, anthropological, psychological, symbolic, and normative dimensions.

Define and Rule

Define and Rule PDF Author: Mahmood Mamdani
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674050525
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 164

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Book Description
When Britain abandoned its attempt to eradicate difference between conqueror and conquered and introduced a new idea of governance as the definition and management of difference, lines of political identity were drawn between settler and native, and between natives according to tribe. Out of this colonial experience arose a language of pluralism.

Neither Settler nor Native

Neither Settler nor Native PDF Author: Mahmood Mamdani
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674987322
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 417

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Book Description
Making the radical argument that the nation-state was born of colonialism, this book calls us to rethink political violence and reimagine political community beyond majorities and minorities. In this genealogy of political modernity, Mahmood Mamdani argues that the nation-state and the colonial state created each other. In case after case around the globe—from the New World to South Africa, Israel to Germany to Sudan—the colonial state and the nation-state have been mutually constructed through the politicization of a religious or ethnic majority at the expense of an equally manufactured minority. The model emerged in North America, where genocide and internment on reservations created both a permanent native underclass and the physical and ideological spaces in which new immigrant identities crystallized as a settler nation. In Europe, this template would be used by the Nazis to address the Jewish Question, and after the fall of the Third Reich, by the Allies to redraw the boundaries of Eastern Europe’s nation-states, cleansing them of their minorities. After Nuremberg the template was used to preserve the idea of the Jews as a separate nation. By establishing Israel through the minoritization of Palestinian Arabs, Zionist settlers followed the North American example. The result has been another cycle of violence. Neither Settler nor Native offers a vision for arresting this historical process. Mamdani rejects the “criminal” solution attempted at Nuremberg, which held individual perpetrators responsible without questioning Nazism as a political project and thus the violence of the nation-state itself. Instead, political violence demands political solutions: not criminal justice for perpetrators but a rethinking of the political community for all survivors—victims, perpetrators, bystanders, beneficiaries—based on common residence and the commitment to build a common future without the permanent political identities of settler and native. Mamdani points to the anti-apartheid struggle in South Africa as an unfinished project, seeking a state without a nation.