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Worth A Thousand Words

The Climate of Past Interglacials PDF Author: F. Sirocko
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080468068
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 638

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Book Description
Historically, climate fluctuations, such as the Little Ice Age, show that interglacial climate chage in not entirely stable, but responds to even subtle changes in radiative forcing. Through research, it has been made clear that even an abrupt change of climate within years is not just a theoretical possibility but has in fact happened in the prehistoric past. It is therefore clear that in principal it could happen again. Human civilaization has exploded under the mild and relatively stable climatic conditions that have prevailed over the last 11,000 years. This book focuses on revisiting the past and to study climate and environment in a suite of experiments where boundary conditions are similar but not identical to today so we can learn about the climate-environment system, its sensitivity, thresholds and feedback. The palaeoclimate community holds an important key to scientific information on climate change that provides a basis for appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies. The authors of this book have taken up this challenge and summarize their results in this special volume. It presents state-of-the-art science on new reconstructions from all spheres of the Earth System and on their synthesis, on methodological advances, and on the current ability of numerical models to simulate low and high frequency changes of climate, environment, and chemical cycling related to interglacials. * Summarizes important information on climate change, providing a basis for appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies for human civilization * Reports on new reconstuctions on methodological advances, numerical models simulating low and high frequence changes, and chemical cycling related to interglacials * Incorporates palaeovegetaion and numerical modeling of climate and environmental and geochemical parameters to address regional feedback to global change with successful data-models

The Climate of Past Interglacials

The Climate of Past Interglacials PDF Author: F. Sirocko
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080468068
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 638

View

Book Description
Historically, climate fluctuations, such as the Little Ice Age, show that interglacial climate chage in not entirely stable, but responds to even subtle changes in radiative forcing. Through research, it has been made clear that even an abrupt change of climate within years is not just a theoretical possibility but has in fact happened in the prehistoric past. It is therefore clear that in principal it could happen again. Human civilaization has exploded under the mild and relatively stable climatic conditions that have prevailed over the last 11,000 years. This book focuses on revisiting the past and to study climate and environment in a suite of experiments where boundary conditions are similar but not identical to today so we can learn about the climate-environment system, its sensitivity, thresholds and feedback. The palaeoclimate community holds an important key to scientific information on climate change that provides a basis for appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies. The authors of this book have taken up this challenge and summarize their results in this special volume. It presents state-of-the-art science on new reconstructions from all spheres of the Earth System and on their synthesis, on methodological advances, and on the current ability of numerical models to simulate low and high frequency changes of climate, environment, and chemical cycling related to interglacials. * Summarizes important information on climate change, providing a basis for appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies for human civilization * Reports on new reconstuctions on methodological advances, numerical models simulating low and high frequence changes, and chemical cycling related to interglacials * Incorporates palaeovegetaion and numerical modeling of climate and environmental and geochemical parameters to address regional feedback to global change with successful data-models

Renewable Energy

Renewable Energy PDF Author: Bent Sorensen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317740939
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 2320

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Book Description
This four-volume set, edited by a leading expert in the field, brings together in one collection a series of papers that have been fundamental to the development of renewable energy as a defined discipline. Some of the papers were first published many years ago, but they remain classics in their fields and retain their relevance to the understanding of current issues. The papers have been selected with the assistance of an eminent international editorial board. The set includes a general introduction and each volume is introduced by a new overview essay, placing the selected papers in context. The range of subject matter is considerable, including coverage of all the main renewable technologies, the fundamental principles by which they function, and the issues around their deployment such as planning, integration and socio-economic assessment. Overall, the set provides students, teachers and researchers, confronted with thousands of journal articles, book chapters and grey literature stretching back decades, with a ready-made selection of and commentary on the most important key writings in renewable energy. It will be an essential reference for libraries concerned with energy, technology and the environment.

Palynology and Vegetation History

Palynology and Vegetation History PDF Author: Valentí Rull
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889456870
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :

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Book Description
This Research Topic commemorates the centenary of the first quantitative pollen diagram by Lennart von Post, the founder of paleoecological palynology. The main aim is to provide a thorough view of the use of palynology in aspects such as the reconstruction of Quaternary vegetation and environmental changes, the role of natural and anthropogenic drivers in the development of the Quaternary vegetation, the shaping of present-day ecological and biogeographical patterns, the potential application of this knowledge in biodiversity conservation and landscape restoration and the development of new methods of pollen analysis and data management. The Research Topic is subdivided into four main conceptual parts, namely (1) modern analog studies; (2) land cover estimates from pollen data; (3) vegetation dynamics reconstructions from Europe, North and South America, Africa and Oceania; and (4) large-scale reviews and meta-analyses. Hopefully, this Research Topic will serve to appraise the state of the art of modern palynology and highlight the usefulness of this discipline in long-term ecological research.

Volcanic Debris Avalanches

Volcanic Debris Avalanches PDF Author: Matteo Roverato
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030574113
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 358

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Book Description
This book presents an overview of volcanic debris avalanche deposits, which are produced by partial volcanic edifice collapse, a catastrophic natural phenomenon. It has been 40 years since the volcanic debris avalanche associated with the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, and our understanding of these events has grown considerably in the interim. Drawing on these advances, the book addresses all aspects of volcanic debris avalanches. Though previously overlooked in field-based geological and volcanological studies, these deposits are now known to be associated with most volcanoes and volcanic areas around the world. The book presents state-of-the-art ideas on the triggering and emplacement mechanisms of these events, supported by field and analogue studies, as well as new simulations tools and models used to determine their physical characteristic and hazards.

Quaternary Coral Reef Systems

Quaternary Coral Reef Systems PDF Author: Lucien F. Montaggioni
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080932767
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 550

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Book Description
This book presents both state-of-the art knowledge from Recent coral reefs (1.8 million to a few centuries old) gained since the eighties, and introduces geologists, oceanographers and environmentalists to sedimentological and paleoecological studies of an ecosystem encompassing some of the world's richest biodiversity. Scleractinian reefs first appeared about 300 million years ago. Today coral reef systems provide some of the most sensitive gauges of environmental change, expressing the complex interplay of chemical, physical, geological and biological factors. The topics covered will include the evolutionary history of reef systems and some of the main reef builders since the Cenozoic, the effects of biological and environmental forces on the zonation of reef systems and the distribution of reef organisms and on reef community dynamics through time, changes in the geometry, anatomy and stratigraphy of reef bodies and systems in relation to changes in sea level and tectonics, the distribution patterns of sedimentary (framework or detrital) facies in relation to those of biological communities, the modes and rates of reef accretion (progradation, aggradation versus backstepping; coral growth versus reef growth), the hydrodynamic forces controlling water circulation through reef structures and their relationship to early diagenetic processes, the major diagenetic processes affecting reef bodies through time (replacement and diddolution, dolomitization, phosphatogenesis), and the record of climate change by both individual coral colonies and reef systems over the Quaternary. * state-of-the-art knowledge from Recent corals reefs * introduction to sedimentological and paleoecological studies of an ecosystems encompassing some of the world's richest biodiversity. * authors are internationally regarded authorities on the subject * trustworthy information

Renewable Energy

Renewable Energy PDF Author: Bent Sørensen
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080890661
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 976

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Book Description
This volume is a true shelf reference, providing a thorough overview of the entire renewable energy sphere, while still functioning as a go-to information source for professionals and students when they need answers about a specific technical issue. Crafted over the last 15 years into a problem-solving tool for engineers, researchers, consultants and planners currently working in the field, as well as a detailed map of the renewables universe for those looking to expand into new technological specialties, Renewable Energy by Sorensen offers the most comprehensive coverage of the subject available. The book has been structured around three parts in order to assist readers in focusing on the issues that impact them the most for a given project or question. PART I covers the basic scientific principles behind all major renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind and biomass. PART II provides in-depth information about how these raw renewable sources can actually be converted into useful forms, transmitted into the grid and stored for future utilization. Finally, PART III undertakes the aspects of energy planning, environmental impacts and socio-economic issues on regional and global levels. In this fourth edition update, new material includes expanded coverage of biofuels, solar conversion, biomass and fuel cells, storage and transmission, and a new chapter on integrated technologies to introduce the hybrid systems now being explored. New surveys and the most recent research findings are included throughout. New, thoroughly updated fourth edition of the authoritative field guide to the entire Renewable Energy universe The only books to scientific principles and implementation methods, technologies and socio-economics, environmental impacts and cutting-edge advances, all in one volume New material includes expanded coverage of biofuels, solar conversion, biomass and fuel cells, storage and transmission, and a new chapter on integrated systems

Landscapes and Landforms of Austria

Landscapes and Landforms of Austria PDF Author: Christine Embleton-Hamann
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030928152
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :

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Book Description


Mineral Dust

Mineral Dust PDF Author: Peter Knippertz
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401789789
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 509

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Book Description
This volume presents state-of-the-art research about mineral dust, including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies. Dust research is a new, dynamic and fast-growing area of science and due to its multiple roles in the Earth system, dust has become a fascinating topic for many scientific disciplines. Aspects of dust research covered in this book reach from timescales of minutes (as with dust devils, cloud processes and radiation) to millennia (as with loess formation and oceanic sediments), making dust both a player and recorder of environmental change. The book is structured in four main parts that explore characteristics of dust, the global dust cycle, impacts of dust on the Earth system, and dust as a climate indicator. The chapters in these parts provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of this highly interdisciplinary subject. The contributions presented here cover dust from source to sink and describe all the processes dust particles undergo while travelling through the atmosphere. Chapters explore how dust is lifted and transported, how it affects radiation, clouds, regional circulations, precipitation and chemical processes in the atmosphere and how it deteriorates air quality. The book explores how dust is removed from the atmosphere by gravitational settling, turbulence or precipitation, how iron contained in dust fertilizes terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and about the role that dust plays in human health. We learn how dust is observed, simulated using computer models and forecast. The book also details the role of dust deposits for climate reconstructions. Scientific observations and results are presented, along with numerous illustrations. This work has an interdisciplinary appeal and will engage scholars in geology, geography, chemistry, meteorology and physics, amongst others with an interest in the Earth system and environmental change. body>

Alboran Sea - Ecosystems and Marine Resources

Alboran Sea - Ecosystems and Marine Resources PDF Author: José Carlos Báez
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030655164
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 939

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Book Description
The Alboran Sea represents a regional Mediterranean space where North and South worlds merges, creating a geopolitical region where marine resources and maritime activities should be managed from a national and international perspectives. It is widely known, that currently the planet is suffering a global change, and it is also affecting the Alboran Sea, its ecosystems and populations. An important first step to update a paramount vision on this region is to understand the climatic, geologic and oceanographic, including biochemical cycles, process which shapes the rich geodiversity, biodiversity, the productivity, and the sustainable use of the marine resources from Alboran Sea. The fisheries management system should take into account marine environmental variability to achieve biological sustainability of marine resources. Well-funded policy-makers’ decisions require a sound science based knowledge of the interaction between the marine environment and commercial stocks. This is because the role of marine environment in the evolution of fish stocks is sometimes even more important than the one played by fishers in the commercial exploitation of them. Finally, we should analyze the different aspects of political context that could affect the management of the resources from Alboran Sea in the context of climate change. This book reviews different aspects of the Alboran Sea to help understand the current situation from the original Tethis Ocean. The book is divided into four blocks: (i) Oceanographic, geological and ecological context (chapters 2 to 7), (ii) biodiversity and ecosystems distribution (chapters 8 to 12), (iii) fisheries resources and aquaculture (chapters 13 to 20), and (iv) conservation, management and marine polices (chapters 21 to 25).

Growth and Collapse of the Tibetan Plateau

Growth and Collapse of the Tibetan Plateau PDF Author: Richard Gloaguen
Publisher: Geological Society of London
ISBN: 9781862393264
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 255

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Book Description
Despite agreement on first-order features and mechanisms, critical aspects of the origin and evolution of the Tibetan Plateau, such as the exact timing and nature of collision, the initiation of plateau uplift, and the evolution of its height and width, are disputed, untested or unknown. This book gathers papers dealing with the growth and collapse of the Tibetan Plateau. The timing, the underlying mechanisms, their interactions and the induced surface shaping, contributing to the Tibetan Plateau evolution are tightly linked via coupled and feedback processes. We present interdisciplinary contributions allowing insight into the complex interactions between lithospheric dynamics, topography building, erosion, hydrological processes and atmospheric coupling. The book is structured in four parts: early processes in the plateau formation; recent growth of the Tibetan Plateau; mechanisms of plateau growth; and plateau uplift, surface processes and the monsoon.