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Worth A Thousand Words

Roman Standards & Standard-Bearers (1) PDF Author: Raffaele D’Amato
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1472821823
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 65

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Book Description
Roman unit standards played a important role, both ceremonially and on the battlefield. With the armies of the late Roman Republic and early Empire continually engaged on the frontiers, the soldiers selected for the dangerous honour of carrying them were figures of particular renown and splendour. Standard-bearers wore special armour, with the heads and pelts of animals such as bears, wolves, or even lions draped over their helmets and shoulders. The standards themselves varied greatly, from the legion's Eagle and imperial portrait image to various cohort signa, flags (vexilla) and even dragon 'windsocks' (dracones) copied from barbarian enemies and allies. This first volume of a two-part series by Roman army expert, Rafaele D'Amato uses detailed colour plates and the latest research to examine these vital cogs in the Roman army machine that drove its soldiers to conquer the known world.

Roman Standards & Standard-Bearers (1)

Roman Standards & Standard-Bearers (1) PDF Author: Raffaele D’Amato
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1472821823
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 65

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Book Description
Roman unit standards played a important role, both ceremonially and on the battlefield. With the armies of the late Roman Republic and early Empire continually engaged on the frontiers, the soldiers selected for the dangerous honour of carrying them were figures of particular renown and splendour. Standard-bearers wore special armour, with the heads and pelts of animals such as bears, wolves, or even lions draped over their helmets and shoulders. The standards themselves varied greatly, from the legion's Eagle and imperial portrait image to various cohort signa, flags (vexilla) and even dragon 'windsocks' (dracones) copied from barbarian enemies and allies. This first volume of a two-part series by Roman army expert, Rafaele D'Amato uses detailed colour plates and the latest research to examine these vital cogs in the Roman army machine that drove its soldiers to conquer the known world.

Roman Standards & Standard-Bearers (2)

Roman Standards & Standard-Bearers (2) PDF Author: Raffaele D’Amato
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1472836502
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 132

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Book Description
The Late Roman Empire was a period of significant change in the designs of standards and in the costumes of standard-bearers. During the middle decades of the chaotic 3rd century, evidence confirms the continued use of the old legionary eagle and the signa of the old cohorts and centuries, alongside flags and Imperial images. The two major trends over the later generations were the adoption of Christian symbols on standards (e.g. Constantine the Great's Chi-Rho), and the proliferation of different types of flags. This had begun in the late 2nd century with the adoption of the 'barbarian' dragon standard, the windsock-shaped draco, which continued to be displayed alongside various other flags in the Greek-speaking Eastern Empire, whose influence increased greatly. Meanwhile, the growing employment of foreign units was such that by the 5th century we have evidence of the use of Hunnic symbolism among a Roman general's suite of standards. The costumes of standard-bearers also evolved as 'Persian' styles spread from Constantinople. This title explores all these changes in depth, charting the development of various costumes and designs and the waxing and waning influence of various cultures and religious considerations. The text is supported by specially commissioned illustrations and artist's reconstructions of the standards and their bearers.

The Spatha

The Spatha PDF Author: M.C. Bishop
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 147283240X
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 81

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Book Description
Adopted from the Celts in the 1st century BC, the spatha, a lethal and formidable chopping blade, became the primary sword of the Roman soldier in the Later Empire. Over the following centuries, the blade, its scabbard, and its system of carriage underwent a series of developments, until by the 3rd century AD it was the universal sidearm of both infantry and cavalry. Thanks to its long reach, the spatha was the ideal cavalry weapon, replacing the long gladius hispaniensis in the later Republican period. As the manner in which Roman infantrymen fought evolved, styles of hand-to-hand combat changed so much that the gladius was superseded by the longer spatha during the 2nd century AD. Like the gladius, the spatha was technologically advanced, with a carefully controlled use of steel. Easy maintenance was key to its success and the spatha was designed to be easily repaired in the field where access to a forge may have been limited. It remained the main Roman sword into the Late Roman period and its influence survived into the Dark Ages with Byzantine, Carolingian and Viking blades. Drawing together historical accounts, excavated artefacts and the results of the latest scientific analyses of the blades, renowned authority M.C. Bishop reveals the full history of the development, technology, training and use of the spatha: the sword that defended an empire.

Roman Plate Armour

Roman Plate Armour PDF Author: M.C. Bishop
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1472851862
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 142

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Book Description
Fully illustrated, this book investigates the articulated plate armour worn by Roman legionaries. First named by Renaissance historians studying the reliefs on Trajan's Column, lorica segmentata evaded successful attempts to reconstruct it until a series of important archaeological finds in the 20th century revealed how it worked and the truth of its extended chronology. The earliest finds date from the late 1st century BC, and its discovery at Kalkriese in Germany shows how rapidly it was adopted. At the same time, discoveries in Spain and Britain showed that, despite its apparent fragility, it continued in use into the 4th century AD. The spectacular find of six halves of cuirasses in a chest at Corbridge in 1964 has now been matched by the rare discovery of a complete set of this armour at Kalkriese. The Corbridge find provided the context to interpret and reconstruct earlier finds. There is now years of experience gleaned from reenactors over the practical strengths and weaknesses of this form of armour. At the same time, scientific analysis has provided insights into the technology behind this revolutionary form of armour so characteristic of the Roman Army. Featuring specially commissioned artwork and drawing upon the latest findings, this study lifts the veil on the formidable plate armour used by the legionaries of Imperial Rome.

Roman Shields

Roman Shields PDF Author: M.C. Bishop
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1472839633
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 65

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Book Description
The introduction of the scutum in the 4th century BC revolutionized the way the Romans fought. Instead of being purely defensive, the shield became a weapon in its own right. Using the top edge or boss to punch an opponent, or the lower rim to smash down on their feet, it served to unbalance an enemy and allow the sword to do its work. The versatility of the scutum was characterized by the testudo, a formation the Romans used offensively like a pedestrian tank. Meanwhile, other shield types equipped the auxiliaries who fought alongside the legionaries. The curved, rectangular scutum survived into the 3rd century AD, only to be replaced by an oval, slightly domed shield derived from the oval shields of Early Imperial auxiliaries. Drawing together historical accounts, excavated artefacts and the results of the latest scientific analyses of the boards and fittings, renowned authority M.C. Bishop reveals the development, technology, training and use of the scutum and other Roman shield types.

Gladiators 4th–1st centuries BC

Gladiators 4th–1st centuries BC PDF Author: Francois Gilbert
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1472850904
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 65

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Book Description
This new study lifts the veil on the high-profile but often misunderstood gladiators of ancient Rome, from their origins to the dawn of the Principate. Originating in funeral rites during the Punic Wars of the 3rd century BC, the Roman gladiator games have come to symbolize the spectacle and savagery of Republican and Imperial Rome. Increasingly elaborate rules and rituals governed the conduct of gladiator combat, with an array of specially armed and armoured gladiator types pitted against one another, either singly or in groups. While many gladiators met a grisly end, some survived to achieve celebrity and make huge fortunes. Despite the wealth of literary and archaeological evidence, many misconceptions about the gladiators and their violent world remain. Featuring eight plates of stunning specially commissioned artwork alongside photographs and drawings of key items of visual evidence, this fully illustrated account recreates the little-known and under-represented gladiators of the centuries leading up to the dawn of the Principate, correcting myths and casting new light on the roles, lives and legacy of these legendary arena fighters.

Gladius

Gladius PDF Author: Guy de la Bédoyère
Publisher: Hachette UK
ISBN: 1408712385
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 389

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Book Description
The Roman army was the greatest fighting machine the ancient world produced. The Roman Empire depended on soldiers not just to win its wars, defend its frontiers and control the seas but also to act as the engine of the state. Roman legionaries and auxiliaries came from across the Roman world and beyond. They served as tax collectors, policemen, surveyors, civil engineers and, if they survived, in retirement as civic worthies, craftsmen and politicians. Some even rose to become emperors. Gladius takes the reader right into the heart of what it meant to be a part of the Roman army through the words of Roman historians, and those of the men themselves through their religious dedications, tombstones, and even private letters and graffiti. Guy de la Bédoyère throws open a window on how the men, their wives and their children lived, from bleak frontier garrisons to guarding the emperor in Rome, enjoying a ringside seat to history fighting the emperors' wars, mutinying over pay, marching in triumphs, throwing their weight around in city streets, and enjoying esteem in honorable retirement.

Rome at War

Rome at War PDF Author: Bloomsbury Publishing
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1472831454
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 208

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Book Description
The Roman Empire was the greatest the world has ever seen, and its legendary military might was the foundation of this success. This compact volume tells the fascinating story of the major conflicts that shaped the empire, from Julius Caesar's bloody Gallic Wars and the Civil War against Pompey that left the victorious Caesar Dictator of Rome, through the wars of expansion to its decline and fragmentation. Beautiful full colour artwork of the soldiers and battles bring the Roman world to life, along with images and colour maps.

Roman Army Units in the Western Provinces (2)

Roman Army Units in the Western Provinces (2) PDF Author: Raffaele D’Amato
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1472833619
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 50

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Book Description
The appearance of Roman soldiers in the 3rd century AD has long been a matter of debate and uncertainty, largely thanks to the collapse of central control and perpetual civil war between the assassination of Severus Alexander in 235 and the accession of the great Diocletian in 284. During those years no fewer than 51 men were proclaimed as emperors, some lasting only a few days. Despite this apparent chaos, however, the garrisons of the Western Provinces held together, by means of localized organization and the recruitment of 'barbarians' to fill the ranks. They still constituted an army in being when Diocletian took over and began the widespread reforms that rebuilt the Empire – though an Empire that their forefathers would hardly have recognized. Fully illustrated with specially chosen colour plates, this book reveals the uniforms, equipment and deployments of Roman soldiers in the most chaotic years of the Empire.

Roman Heavy Cavalry (1)

Roman Heavy Cavalry (1) PDF Author: Raffaele D’Amato
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1472830032
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 65

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Book Description
From the army of Marc Antony in the 1st century BC, Roman generals hired Oriental heavy armoured cavalry to serve in their military alongside the legions. These troops, both from the northern steppes and the Persian frontiers, continued an ancient tradition of using heavy armour and long lances, and fought in a compact formation for maximum shock effect. They were quite distinct from conventional Roman light cavalry, and they served across the Empire, including in Britain. They became ever more important during the 3rd century wars against Parthia, both to counter their cavalry and to form a mobile strategic reserve. Displaying these impressive and imposing cavalry units using vivid specially commissioned artwork, this first book in a two part series on Roman Heavy Cavalry examines their use over the Imperial period up to the fall of Western Empire in the 5th century A.D.