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Worth A Thousand Words

Classical Theories of Money, Output and Inflation PDF Author: Roy Green
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1349223883
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 271

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Book Description
This book challenges the conventional view that monetarism is a necessary part of classical economics and shows, in an historical account of monetary controversy, that the framework upon which classical analysis is based suggests an alternative account of the inflationary process. A corollary of the argument is that the monetarist approach is a logically necessary component of neoclassical analysis and that any attempt to criticise that approach in a fundamental way must involve an explicit rejection of the conceptual structure of neoclassical economics.

Classical Theories of Money, Output and Inflation

Classical Theories of Money, Output and Inflation PDF Author: Roy Green
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1349223883
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 271

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Book Description
This book challenges the conventional view that monetarism is a necessary part of classical economics and shows, in an historical account of monetary controversy, that the framework upon which classical analysis is based suggests an alternative account of the inflationary process. A corollary of the argument is that the monetarist approach is a logically necessary component of neoclassical analysis and that any attempt to criticise that approach in a fundamental way must involve an explicit rejection of the conceptual structure of neoclassical economics.

Inflation and the Theory of Money

Inflation and the Theory of Money PDF Author: R. J. Ball
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351512552
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 313

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Book Description
Martin Bronfenbrenner in the Journal of Finance had this to say when the book was first released "A thoughtful, scholarly, and systematic treatise on the economics of inflation. If this reviewer were asked to hang a course on inflation theory upon one single text, it would almost certainly be this one." The principal concern of this book is to set out the elements that enter into problems of analyzing inflation. This detailed, readable review of contemporary theory on the problems of inflation fills an important gap in the literature on macro-economics that: 1) assesses the implications of inflationary processes for economic policy; 2) synthesizes a general framework within which to illustrate inflationary processes; 3) reconciles the approaches of "demand inflation" and "cost inflation"; and 4) analyzes the determination and behavior of the general price level in an exchange economy. The first part of the book reviews neo-classical and "Keynesian" type models of the closed macro-economy, analyzes determination of the general price level, and introduces a restatement of conventional employment theory with emphasis on the general price level. The second part considers the problems of price and wage determinations and the demand for money in more detail, synthesizing the analyses into a model of the macro-economy and discussing the implications of this model and the preceding analysis for economic policy. Describing alternative approaches to the theory of inflation, each of which has resulted in partial theories, the book avoids fragmentary explanations by setting the entire discussion in the context of a macro-economic general equilibrium framework.

Macroeconomics and Monetary Theory

Macroeconomics and Monetary Theory PDF Author: Harry G. Johnson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351508008
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 213

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Book Description
Macroeconomics is an outgrowth from the main stream of classical monetary theory following Keynes. Keynes changed the emphasis from determination of the level of money prices to determination of the level of output and employment. He also changed the key relationship from demand and supply of money as determining the price level to the relationship between consumption expenditure and income, in conjunction with private investment expenditure, as determining the level of output and therefore employment demanded. The income multiplier replaced the velocity of circulation as the key concept of monetary theory. The tendency of the past twenty-five years has been to reintegrate Keynesian and classical monetary theory into one general system of analysis. Moreover, as inflation has succeeded mass unemployment as a major policy problem, interest in classical monetary theory has revived, while Keynesians have increasingly' emphasized the monetary aspects of Keynesian theory. The proper contemporary distinction is not between two separate branches of economic theory, but between two areas of application or contexts of the theory of rational maximizing behavior. In the one (the microeconomic) context, it is assumed either that the overall workings of the economic system can be disregarded, or that the macroeconomic relationships are in full general equilibrium. In the other (the macroeconomic) context, it is assumed that the maximizing decisions of individual economic units (firms and households) will not necessarily add up to a macroeconomic equilibrium, but will produce a disequilibrium situation that will in the course of time produce changes in the individual decisions.

Alternative Theories of Output, Unemployment, and Inflation in Germany: 1960–1985

Alternative Theories of Output, Unemployment, and Inflation in Germany: 1960–1985 PDF Author: Christine Sauer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642456626
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 206

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Book Description
by Jerome L. Stein Disenchantment with Keynesian econollics developed during the post-1968 period when the rate of growth of output declined, the rate of unemployment rose, and the rate of inflation increased in the U.S. and in other countries. This paradox, called stagflation, was inconsistent with the tenet of Keynesian economics that cyclical movemants in prices and output relative to their respective trends are positively correlated. A search occurred for a more satisfactory theory of macroeconomics which could explain the paradox of stagflation and the observed economic phenomena. The New Classical Economics (NCE) developed as the total rejection of Keynesian economics. The Keynesians claimed that their demand management policies contributed to the obsolescence of the business cycle and successfully eliminated the gap between full employment (potential) output and actusl output. The NCE argued just the opposite: the unemplo~nt rate or growth rate of real output is insensitive to systematic demand management policies [Lucas; Sargent and Wallace].

Macroeconomics

Macroeconomics PDF Author: Richard T. Froyen
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780130328595
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 524

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Book Description
This book traces the history of macroeconomics, the evolution of macroeconomic thought, and the resulting theory and policy. It places the various macroeconomic theories in the order in which they developed chronologically, and illustrates the similarities and differences of the models. The author admires all points of view and the result is a comprehensive, detailed, unbiased view of modern macroeconomic theory. Chapter topics examine the measurement of macroeconomic variables; classical macroeconomics: equilibrium output and employment, money, prices, and interest; the Keynesian system; the monetarist counterrevolution; output, inflation and unemployment: monetarist and Keynesian views; new classical economics; real business cycles and new Keynesian economics; exchange rates and the international monetary system; monetary and fiscal policy in the open economy; the money supply process; monetary policy; fiscal policy; long- and intermediate-term economic growth; consumption and investment; and money demand. For individuals looking for a better understanding of macroeconomics.

Reconstructing Macroeconomics

Reconstructing Macroeconomics PDF Author: Lance TAYLOR
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674044231
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 454

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Book Description
Macroeconomics is in disarray. No one approach is dominant, and an increasing divide between theory and empirics is evident. This book presents both a critique of mainstream macroeconomics from a structuralist perspective and an exposition of modern structuralist approaches. The fundamental assumption of structuralism is that it is impossible to understand a macroeconomy without understanding its major institutions and distributive relationships across productive sectors and social groups. Lance Taylor focuses his critique on mainstream monetarist, new classical, new Keynesian, and growth models. He examines them from a historical perspective, tracing monetarism from its eighteenth-century roots and comparing current monetarist and new classical models with those of the post-Wicksellian, pre-Keynesian generation of macroeconomists. He contrasts the new Keynesian vision with Keynes's General Theory, and analyzes contemporary growth theories against long traditions of thought about economic development and structural change. Table of Contents: Acknowledgments Introduction 1. Social Accounts and Social Relations 1. A Simple Social Accounting Matrix 2. Implications of the Accounts 3. Disaggregating Effective Demand 4. A More Realistic SAM 5. Stock-Flow Relationships 6. A SAM and Asset Accounts for the United States 7. Further Thoughts 2. Prices and Distribution 1. Classical Macroeconomics 2. Classical Theories of Price and Distribution 3. Neoclassical Cost-Based Prices 4. Hat Calculus, Measuring Productivity Growth, and Full Employment Equilibrium 5. Mark-up Pricing in the Product Market 6. Efficiency Wages for Labor 7. New Keynesian Crosses and Methodological Reservations 8. First Looks at Inflation 3. Money, Interest, and Inflation 1. Money and Credit 2. Diverse Interest Theories 3. Interest Rate Cost-Push 4. Real Interest Rate Theory 5. The Ramsey Model 6. Dynamics on a Flying Trapeze 7. The Overlapping Generations Growth Model 8. Wicksell's Cumulative Process Inflation Model 9. More on Inflation Taxes 4. Effective Demand and Its Real and Financial Implications 1. The Commodity Market 2. Macro Adjustment via Forced Saving and Real Balance Effects 3. Real Balances, Input Substitution, and Money Wage Cuts 4. Liquidity Preference and Marginal Efficiency of Capital 5. Liquidity Preference, Fisher Arbitrage, and the Liquidity Trap 6. The System as a Whole 7. The IS/LM Model 8. Keynes and Friends on Financial Markets 9. Financial Markets and Investment 10. Consumption and Saving 11 "Disequilibrium" Macroeconomics 12. A Structuralist Synopsis 5. Short-Term Model Closure and Long-Term Growth 1. Model "Closures" in the Short Run 2. Graphical Representations and Supply-Driven Growth 3. Harrod, Robinson, and Related Stories 4. More Stable Demand-Determined Growth 6. Chicago Monetarism, New Classical Macroeconomics, and Mainstream Finance 1. Methodological Caveats 2. A Chicago Monetarist Model 3. A Cleaner Version of Monetarism 4. New Classical Spins 5. Dynamics of Government Debt 6. Ricardian Equivalence 7. The Business Cycle Conundrum 8. Cycles from the Supply Side 9. Optimal Behavior under Risk 10. Random Walk, Equity Premium, and the Modigliani-Miller Theorem 11. More on Modigliani-Miller 12. The Calculation Debate and Super-Rational Economics 7. Effective Demand and the Distributive Curve 1. Initial Observations 2. Inflation, Productivity Growth, and Distribution 3. Absorbing Productivity Growth 4. Effects of Expansionary Policy 5. Financial Extensions 6. Dynamics of the System 7. Comparative Dynamics 8. Open Economy Complications 8. Structuralist Finance and Money 1. Banking History and Institutions 2. Endogenous Finance 3. Endogenous Money via Bank Lending 4. Money Market Funds and the Level of Interest Rates 5. Business Debt and Growth in a Post-Keynesian World 6. New Keynesian Approaches to Financial Markets 9. A Genus of Cycles 1. Goodwin's Model 2. A Structuralist Goodwin Model 3. Evidence for the United States 4. A Contractionary Devaluation Cycle 5. An Inflation Expectations Cycle 6. Confidence and Multiplier 7. Minsky on Financial Cycles 8. Excess Capacity, Corporate Debt Burden, and a Cold Douche 9. Final Thoughts 10. Exchange Rate Complications 1. Accounting Conundrums 2. Determining Exchange Rates 3. Asset Prices, Expectations, and Exchange Rates 4. Commodity Arbitrage and Purchasing Power Parity 5. Portfolio Balance 6. Mundell-Fleming 7. IS/LM Comparative Statics 8. UIP and Dynamics 9. Open Economy Monetarism 10. Dornbusch 11. Other Theories of the Exchange Rate 12. A Developing Country Debt Cycle 13. Fencing in the Beast 11. Growth and Development Theories 1. New Growth Theories and Say's Law 2. Distribution and Growth 3. Models with Binding Resource or Sectoral Supply Constraints 4. Accounting for Growth 5. Other Perspectives 6. The Mainstream Policy Response 7. Where Theory Might Sensibly Go References Index Reconstructing Macroeconomics is a stunning intellectual achievement. It surveys an astonishing range of macroeconomic problems and approaches in a compact, coherent critical framework with unfailing depth, wit, and subtlety. Lance Taylor's pathbreaking work in structural macroeconomics and econometrics sets challenging standards of rigor, realism, and insight for the field. Taylor shows why the structuralist and Keynesian insistence on putting accounting consistency, income distribution, and aggregate demand at the center of macroeconomic analysis is indispensable to understanding real-world macroeconomic events in both developing and developed economies. The book is full of new results, modeling techniques, and shrewd suggestions for further research. Taylor's scrupulous and balanced appraisal of the whole range of macroeconomic schools of thought will be a source of new perspectives to macroeconomists of every persuasion. --Duncan K. Foley, New School University Lance Taylor has produced a masterful and comprehensive critical survey of existing macro models, both mainstream and structuralist, which breaks considerable new ground. The pace is brisk, the level is high, and the writing is entertaining. The author's sense of humor and literary references enliven the discussion of otherwise arcane and technical, but extremely important, issues in macro theory. This book is sure to become a standard reference that future generations of macroeconomists will refer to for decades to come. --Robert Blecker, American University While there are other books dealing with heterodox macroeconomics, this book surpasses them all in the quality of its presentation and in the careful treatment and criticism of orthodox macroeconomics including its recent contributions. The book is unique in the way it systematically covers heterodox growth theory and its relations to other aspects of heterodox macroeconomics using a common organizing framework in terms of accounting relations, and in the way it compares the theories with mainstream contributions. Another positive and novel feature of the book is that it takes a long view of the development of economic ideas, which leads to a more accurate appreciation of the real contributions by recent theoretical developments than is possible in a presentation that ignores the history of macroeconomics. --Amitava Dutt, University of Notre Dame

Macroeconomics without the Errors of Keynes

Macroeconomics without the Errors of Keynes PDF Author: James C. W. Ahiakpor
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317217845
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 230

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Book Description
Modern macroeconomics is in a stalemate, with seven schools of thought attempting to explain the workings of a monetary economy and to derive policies that promote economic growth with price-level stability. This book pinpoints as the source of this confusion errors made by Keynes in his reading of classical macroeconomics, in particular the classical Quantity Theory and the meaning of saving. It argues that if these misunderstandings are resolved, it will lead to economic policies consistent with promoting the employment and economic growth that Keynes was seeking. The book will be crucial reading for all scholars with an interest in the foundations of Keynes’s theories, and anyone seeking to understand current debates regarding macroeconomic policy-making.

A Neo-Keynesian Theory of Inflation and Economic Growth

A Neo-Keynesian Theory of Inflation and Economic Growth PDF Author: S. Fujino
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642481507
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 98

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Book Description


The Golden Age of the Quantity Theory

The Golden Age of the Quantity Theory PDF Author: David E.W. Laidler
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400862485
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 238

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Book Description
How did neoclassical monetary economics, as epitomized by the work of Fisher, Wicksell, and the Cambridge School, evolve from the classical orthodoxy that dominated economics in the 1870s? To answer this question, David Laidler considers the interaction of theoretical developments with contemporary policy debates about bimetallism and the evolution of the gold exchange standard. He argues that neoclassical monetary economics, in which the quantity theory of money played a central role, laid the intellectual groundwork for the replacement of the gold standard by various managed monetary systems in the years following World War I. Laidler is one of the world's foremost experts on monetary economics, and this book provides an illuminating account and analysis of one of the most important periods in the development of that field. Scholars of the history of economic thought and all monetary economists will find that The Golden Age of the Quantity Theory is the most systematic treatment of the development of monetary economics between 1870 and 1914 currently available. Originally published in 1991. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

Macroeconomics and Monetary Theory

Macroeconomics and Monetary Theory PDF Author: Harry Gordon Johnson
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780202060545
Category : Macroeconomics
Languages : en
Pages : 214

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Book Description
Macroeconomics is an outgrowth from the main stream of classical monetary theory following Keynes. Keynes changed the emphasis from determination of the level of money prices to determination of the level of output and employment. He also changed the key relationship from demand and supply of money as determining the price level to the relationship between consumption expenditure and income, in conjunction with private investment expenditure, as determining the level of output and therefore employment demanded. The income multiplier replaced the velocity of circulation as the key concept of monetary theory. The tendency of the past twenty-five years has been to reintegrate Keynesian and classical monetary theory into one general system of analysis. Moreover, as inflation has succeeded mass unemployment as a major policy problem, interest in classical monetary theory has revived, while Keynesians have increasingly' emphasized the monetary aspects of Keynesian theory. The proper contemporary distinction is not between two separate branches of economic theory, but between two areas of application or contexts of the theory of rational maximizing behavior. In the one (the microeconomic) context, it is assumed either that the overall workings of the economic system can be disregarded, or that the macroeconomic relationships are in full general equilibrium. In the other (the macroeconomic) context, it is assumed that the maximizing decisions of individual economic units (firms and households) will not necessarily add up to a macroeconomic equilibrium, but will produce a disequilibrium situation that will in the course of time produce changes in the individual decisions. Harry G. Johnson was Professor of Economics at the London School of Economics and the University of Chicago. He was a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a Member of the Executive Committee of the American Economic Association. He has been editor of The Manchester School and the Journal of Political Economy and has served on the research staff of the Royal Commission on Banking and Finance, as a Consultant to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and as a Member of the Review Committee on Balance of Payments Statistics.