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Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Science and Technology PDF Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309265355
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 150

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Book Description
The goal of the U.S. Department of Defense's (DoD's) Chemical and Biological Defense Program (CBDP) is to provide support and world-class capabilities enabling he U.S. Armed Forces to fight and win decisively in chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) environments. To accomplish this objective, the CBDP must maintain robust science and technology capabilities to support the research, development, testing, and evaluation required for the creation and validation of the products the program supplies. The threat from chemical and biological attack evolves due to the changing nature of conflict and rapid advances in science and technology (S&T), so the core S&T capabilities that must be maintained by the CBDP must also continue to evolve. In order to address the challenges facing the DoD, the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (DASD) for Chemical and Biological Defense (CBD) asked the National Research Council (NRC) to conduct a study to identify the core capabilities in S&T that must be supported by the program. The NRC Committee on Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Research and Development examined the capabilities necessary for the chemical and biological defense S&T program in the context of the threat and of the program's stated mission and priorities. Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Science and Technology contains the committee's findings and recommendations. It is intended to assist the DASD CBD in determining the best strategy for acquiring, developing, and/or maintaining the needed capabilities.

Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Science and Technology

Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Science and Technology PDF Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309265355
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 150

View

Book Description
The goal of the U.S. Department of Defense's (DoD's) Chemical and Biological Defense Program (CBDP) is to provide support and world-class capabilities enabling he U.S. Armed Forces to fight and win decisively in chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) environments. To accomplish this objective, the CBDP must maintain robust science and technology capabilities to support the research, development, testing, and evaluation required for the creation and validation of the products the program supplies. The threat from chemical and biological attack evolves due to the changing nature of conflict and rapid advances in science and technology (S&T), so the core S&T capabilities that must be maintained by the CBDP must also continue to evolve. In order to address the challenges facing the DoD, the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (DASD) for Chemical and Biological Defense (CBD) asked the National Research Council (NRC) to conduct a study to identify the core capabilities in S&T that must be supported by the program. The NRC Committee on Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Research and Development examined the capabilities necessary for the chemical and biological defense S&T program in the context of the threat and of the program's stated mission and priorities. Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Science and Technology contains the committee's findings and recommendations. It is intended to assist the DASD CBD in determining the best strategy for acquiring, developing, and/or maintaining the needed capabilities.

Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Science and Technology

Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Science and Technology PDF Author: Committee on Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Research and Development
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780309385046
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 134

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Book Description
The goal of the U.S. Department of Defense's (DoD's) Chemical and Biological Defense Program (CBDP) is to provide support and world-class capabilities enabling he U.S. Armed Forces to fight and win decisively in chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) environments. To accomplish this objective, the CBDP must maintain robust science and technology capabilities to support the research, development, testing, and evaluation required for the creation and validation of the products the program supplies. The threat from chemical and biological attack evolves due to the changing nature of conflict and rapid advances in science and technology (S&T), so the core S&T capabilities that must be maintained by the CBDP must also continue to evolve. In order to address the challenges facing the DoD, the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (DASD) for Chemical and Biological Defense (CBD) asked the National Research Council (NRC) to conduct a study to identify the core capabilities in S&T that must be supported by the program. The NRC Committee on Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Research and Development examined the capabilities necessary for the chemical and biological defense S&T program in the context of the threat and of the program's stated mission and priorities. Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Science and Technology contains the committee's findings and recommendations. It is intended to assist the DASD CBD in determining the best strategy for acquiring, developing, and/or maintaining the needed capabilities.

Industrialization of Biology

Industrialization of Biology PDF Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309316553
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 167

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Book Description
The tremendous progress in biology over the last half century - from Watson and Crick's elucidation of the structure of DNA to today's astonishing, rapid progress in the field of synthetic biology - has positioned us for significant innovation in chemical production. New bio-based chemicals, improved public health through improved drugs and diagnostics, and biofuels that reduce our dependency on oil are all results of research and innovation in the biological sciences. In the past decade, we have witnessed major advances made possible by biotechnology in areas such as rapid, low-cost DNA sequencing, metabolic engineering, and high-throughput screening. The manufacturing of chemicals using biological synthesis and engineering could expand even faster. A proactive strategy - implemented through the development of a technical roadmap similar to those that enabled sustained growth in the semiconductor industry and our explorations of space - is needed if we are to realize the widespread benefits of accelerating the industrialization of biology. Industrialization of Biology presents such a roadmap to achieve key technical milestones for chemical manufacturing through biological routes. This report examines the technical, economic, and societal factors that limit the adoption of bioprocessing in the chemical industry today and which, if surmounted, would markedly accelerate the advanced manufacturing of chemicals via industrial biotechnology. Working at the interface of synthetic chemistry, metabolic engineering, molecular biology, and synthetic biology, Industrialization of Biology identifies key technical goals for next-generation chemical manufacturing, then identifies the gaps in knowledge, tools, techniques, and systems required to meet those goals, and targets and timelines for achieving them. This report also considers the skills necessary to accomplish the roadmap goals, and what training opportunities are required to produce the cadre of skilled scientists and engineers needed.

Spills of Diluted Bitumen from Pipelines

Spills of Diluted Bitumen from Pipelines PDF Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309380103
Category : Nature
Languages : en
Pages : 166

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Book Description
Diluted bitumen has been transported by pipeline in the United States for more than 40 years, with the amount increasing recently as a result of improved extraction technologies and resulting increases in production and exportation of Canadian diluted bitumen. The increased importation of Canadian diluted bitumen to the United States has strained the existing pipeline capacity and contributed to the expansion of pipeline mileage over the past 5 years. Although rising North American crude oil production has resulted in greater transport of crude oil by rail or tanker, oil pipelines continue to deliver the vast majority of crude oil supplies to U.S. refineries. Spills of Diluted Bitumen from Pipelines examines the current state of knowledge and identifies the relevant properties and characteristics of the transport, fate, and effects of diluted bitumen and commonly transported crude oils when spilled in the environment. This report assesses whether the differences between properties of diluted bitumen and those of other commonly transported crude oils warrant modifications to the regulations governing spill response plans and cleanup. Given the nature of pipeline operations, response planning, and the oil industry, the recommendations outlined in this study are broadly applicable to other modes of transportation as well.

Research Progress on Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials

Research Progress on Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials PDF Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309291895
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 162

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Book Description
Despite the increase in funding for research and the rising numbers of peer-reviewed publications over the past decade that address the environmental, health, and safety aspects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), uncertainty about the implications of potential exposures of consumers, workers, and ecosystems to these materials persists. Consumers and workers want to know which of these materials they are exposed to and whether the materials can harm them. Industry is concerned about being able to predict with sufficient certainty whether products that it makes and markets will pose any environmental, health or safety issues and what measures should be taken regarding manufacturing practices and worldwide distribution to minimize any potential risk. However, there remains a disconnect between the research that is being carried out and its relevance to and use by decision-makers and regulators to make informed public health and environmental policy and regulatory decisions. Research Progress on Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Nanomaterials evaluates research progress and updates research priorities and resource estimates on the basis of results of studies and emerging trends in the nanotechnology industry. This report follows up the 2012 report A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials, which presented a strategic approach for developing the science and research infrastructure needed to address uncertainties regarding the potential environmental, health, and safety risks posed by ENMs. This new report looks at the state of nanotechnology research, examines market and regulatory conditions and their affect on research priorities, and considers the criteria for evaluating research progress on the environmental, health, and safety aspects of nanotechnology.

Nuclear Proliferation and Terrorism in the Post-9/11 World

Nuclear Proliferation and Terrorism in the Post-9/11 World PDF Author: David Hafemeister
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319253670
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 434

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Book Description
This book fills a clear gap in the literature for a technically-focused book covering nuclear proliferation and related issues post-9/11. Using a concept-led approach which serves a broad readership, it provides detailed overview of nuclear weapons, nuclear proliferation and international nuclear policy. The author addresses topics including offensive and defensive missile systems, command and control, verification, weapon effects, and nuclear testing. A chronology of nuclear arms is presented including detailed discussion of the Cold War, proliferation, and arms control treaties. The book is tailored to courses on nuclear proliferation, and the general reader will also find it a fascinating introduction to the science and strategy behind international nuclear policy in the modern era.

Airborne Hazards Related to Deployment

Airborne Hazards Related to Deployment PDF Author: Coleen P. Baird
Publisher: Department of the Army
ISBN:
Category : Air
Languages : en
Pages : 417

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Book Description
NOTE: NO FURTHER DISCOUNT FOR THIS PRINT PRODUCT-- OVERSTOCK SALE -- Significantly reduced list price Developed from the Airborne Hazards Symposium held in Washington, DC, in August 2012, this book covers diagnosis and workup of symptomatic individuals, exposure characterization, current epidemiology, the potential role of pulmonary function testing (spirometry) in surveillance, strategic research planning, clinical follow-up and registries, risk communication, etc. Symposium presentations were delivered by a diverse group of scientific experts and contain valuable veteran perspectives. This book represents a compendium of what is currently known regarding the potential long-term health consequences of exposure to airborne hazards during Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation New Dawn deployments. Airborne Hazards Related to Deployment presents a balanced, comprehensive approach to furthering the understanding of airborne hazards during deployments and other military operations, ultimately improving airborne hazard prevention, protection, and avoidance while improving healthcare and minimizing adverse health outcomes of our service members and veterans.

Laser-Based Optical Detection of Explosives

Laser-Based Optical Detection of Explosives PDF Author: Paul M. Pellegrino
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482233290
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 409

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Book Description
Laser-Based Optical Detection of Explosives offers a comprehensive review of past, present, and emerging laser-based methods for the detection of a variety of explosives. This book: Considers laser propagation safety and explains standard test material preparation for standoff optical-based detection system evaluation Explores explosives detection using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, reflectometry, and hyperspectral imaging Examines photodissociation followed by laser-induced fluorescence, photothermal methods, cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry, and short-pulse laser-based techniques Describes the detection and recognition of explosives using terahertz-frequency spectroscopic techniques Each chapter is authored by a leading expert on the respective technology, and is structured to supply historical perspective, address current advantages and challenges, and discuss novel research and applications. Readers are left with an in-depth understanding and appreciation of each technology’s capabilities and potential for standoff hazard detection.

Advancing Disease Modeling in Animal-Based Research in Support of Precision Medicine

Advancing Disease Modeling in Animal-Based Research in Support of Precision Medicine PDF Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309471192
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 138

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Book Description
Precision medicine is focused on the individual and will require the rapid and accurate identification and prioritization of causative factors of disease. To move forward and accelerate the delivery of the anticipated benefits of precision medicine, developing predictable, reproducible, and reliable animal models will be essential. In order to explore the topic of animal-based research and its relevance to precision medicine, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a 2-day workshop on October 5 and 6, 2017. The workshop was designed to focus on the development, implementation, and interpretation of model organisms to advance and accelerate the field of precision medicine. Participants examined the extent to which next-generation animal models, designed using patient data and phenotyping platforms targeted to reveal and inform disease mechanisms, will be essential to the successful implementation of precision medicine. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Nanotechnology for Chemical and Biological Defense

Nanotechnology for Chemical and Biological Defense PDF Author: Margaret Kosal
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441900623
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 158

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Book Description
New and unpredicted technologies are emerging at an unprecedented pace around the world. Communication of those new discoveries is occurring faster than ever, meaning that the unique ownership of a piece of new technology is no longer a sufficient position, if not impossible. In today’s world, recognition of the potential applications of a technology and a sense of purpose in exploiting it are far more important than simply having access to it. Technological surprise has and will continue to take many forms. A plethora of new technologies are under development for peaceful means but may have un- tended security consequences and will certainly require innovative counterme- ures. A relevant example is the tremendous development in biotechnology that has occurred since the advent of recombinant DNA and tissue culture-based processes in the 1970s. If US government agencies and the defense and academic commu- ties had more clearly recognized the potential for biotechnology to affect fun- mental security and warfighting doctrines 20 years ago, the situation today could be very different. Defense against chemical and biological weapons – from both states and nonstate actors – currently presents a threat that is difficult to predict and for which traditional solutions are increasingly less effective. Nanotechnology has emerged as a well-funded discipline that, like biote- nology, carries the potential for groundbreaking applications and the potential for unpredictable harm. The world is likely 20 years away from the full impact of the nanotechnology on defensive capabilities.